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Kinsale 2021 – An Energy Descent Action Plan

Ya existe una traducción, que he subido a este wiki realizada por la "Entesa pel Decreixement": kinsale castellano.pdf

Desde su web sólo es disponible la versión en Catalán.



The report that you hold in your hand is a very important piece of work.  

It is the first attempt at setting out how Kinsale, a West Cork town of  about 7,000 people, could make the transition from a high energy  consumption town to a low energy one. 

The impending peaking of  world oil production will lead to huge changes around the world, and  Ireland will not be immune from this.   

This report, prepared by permaculture students from Kinsale Further  Education College, looks at how Kinsale could navigate this uncertain  time by setting out a clear vision of how a lower energy future could be,  and then identifying a clear timetable for achieving it. 

This is, as far as  we know, the first time this has happened in Ireland. 

The report looks  at most aspects of life in Kinsale, including food, energy, tourism,  education and health. 

Also described is the process that produced this  report, in the hope that it can be rolled out in other towns across the  country.   



This document is the result of the hard work and commitment of a number of people,  all of whom deserve our appreciation and recognition. 

First and foremost, John  Thuellier, principal of Kinsale FEC, under whose guidance the Practical Sustainability  has taken root in Kinsale soil and been nurtured and allowed to flourish. 

Without his  care and vision, it would still be but a dormant seed. 

Secondly all the students of  the course over the years, all of whom have contributed in one way or another to its  development, and to the document you now hold in your hand. 

Their passion and  zeal for implementing practical solutions has always given me a real hope for the  future. 

My fellow teachers at Kinsale FEC deserve recognition for their inputs into  this project, namely Thomas Riedmuller, Paul O’Flynn, Phoebe Bright and Philip  Ward. 

Also to the people who gave their time towards helping to shape this work,  Dr. Colin Campbell, Andy Langford, Graham Strouts, Tom Atkins, Dr. Stephen  Gascoigne, Judith Hoad, Quentin Gargan and Clare Watson, Dominic Waldron,  Caroline and Eddie Robinson and Xavier Dubuisson, as well as the thinkers who have  inspired it, David Holmgren, Richard Heinberg, Bill Mollison, Howard Odum, Richard  Douthwaite, David Fleming, Helena Norberg-Hodge and Patrick Whitefield. 

Thanks  also to James Casey-Ellis of www.smallgiant.biz for the graphic image on the cover. 

Finally the people of Kinsale who have greeted this project with great enthusiasm,  and for whom, ultimately, we have produced this document.     


We would also like to extend our deep gratitude to Kinsale Town Council  and Kinsale Environment Watch for their help with the publishing of this  report.       This document is dedicated to the memory of permaculture student and dear friend  Andrew Long (1972-2004) and to peace in the world



“If you want to build a ship, don't herd people together to collect wood and  don't assign them tasks and work; but, rather, teach them to long for the  endless immensity of the sea”.  





“Traveller, there are no roads, roads are made by travelling” 
Spanish Proverb 





The Practical Sustainability Course at Kinsale FEC   


The Practical Sustainability course at Kinsale FEC is the first  full-time 2 year permaculture course in the world.

Developed  over the last 4 years by permaculture designer and teacher  Rob Hopkins, it offers students the opportunity to study  permaculture and related topics in an inspiring setting and with  some of Ireland’s leading thinkers in the field of sustainability. 

The course is run under the auspices of Cork Vocational  Education Committee, and leads to FETAC qualifications, a  maximum of 8 of which can be undertaken in one year. 


The modules covered are NCVA Level 2 awards, and are as follows – Year One –  Permaculture Design, Sustainable Woodland Management, Organic Production Principles,  Organic Horticulture and Field Ecology.

Year Two – Applied Permaculture, Green Building,  Starting Your Own Business, Community Leadership and Conflict Resolution.  


The course is taught in a very accessible and student-centred way,  with many site visits to projects of interest around Munster, and with  a number of hands-on projects.

In previous years students have  built a strawbale house, planted an edible hedge, planted a  woodland, made living willow sculptures, put up a polytunnel,  planted a forest garden, made a pond, built an earth bread oven and  built drystone walls.

This year’s has seen the completion of the  cordwood amphitheatre, a beautiful new theatre built from local and  natural materials. 

It was opened in May 2005 with a performance of  ‘The Merry Wives of Windsor’ by the college’s drama students.

The  whole emphasis of the course is on giving students a toolkit that  they can use in their lives to make their homes, their communities  and their world more abundant and sustainable. 


Guest speakers on previous years courses have included  the organic writer Joy Larkcom, community housing  specialist Jose Ospina, renewable energy consultant  Gerry Cunnane, Anne B. Ryan, author of ‘Balancing Your  Life’, local tree folklorist Ted Cooke, reedbed engineer  Feidhlim Harty, permaculture gardener Dominic Waldron,  Davie Phillip of The Village eco-village project in Co. Tipperary and many more.


The course contains assessed  modules in all of the above areas, and also completion of  the Year One Permaculture Design module will lead to  the awarding of a certificate of permaculture design, an  internationally recognised qualification in permaculture,  the pre-requisite for doing the Diploma in Applied  Permaculture.  


The course is taught by the following;  Rob Hopkins has taught permaculture design in  Ireland for 7 years and has taught widely around  the country.

He is a founding Director of The  Hollies Centre for Practical Sustainability, and  has become one of the country’s leading  pioneers of natural building.  Paul O’Flynn is an organic grower, landscaper  and woodsman of over 15 years experience.   Until recently he ran an organic market garden in  Newcastle West, Co. Limerick, producing a range  of organic produce for local Farmers Markets and  restaurants.  

Philip Ward is a local ecologist with an unrivalled knowledge of the ecology of West Cork. 

Thomas Riedmuller of The Hollies Centre for Practical Sustainability teaches conflict  resolution and community leadership, and has done much to promote this area in Ireland.  

Phoebe Bright teaches Start Your Own Business.  She runs Vivid Logic, a consultancy  company which offers solutions on sustainable business, Information Technology, and website  development.  She is trained in the Natural Step which she also teaches.   


To find out more or to receive an application form contact Kinsale Further Education Centre at  kinsalefurthered@eircom.net or ring ++353 (0)214772275.  





The Kinsale Energy Descent Energy Action Plan   – an introduction.   


by Rob Hopkins, course co-ordinator, Kinsale FEC   



Oil is an amazing material.  It can power aeroplanes, run cars and lorries, heat our homes and  generate electricity.  It can be turned into a huge array of plastics and other polymers the  world has never seen before, allowing us access to a great diversity of products our ancestors  could only have dreamt of – what Kinsale’s ancient mariners would have given to get their  hands on fibreglass and silicon mastic!  It can be manufactured into medicines; the vast  majority of modern drugs are petrochemical-based.  Oil is used to power the production of  high embodied energy materials such as cement, aluminium, steel and glass, which we use to  house ourselves.  It has facilitated a huge growth in employment and economic wealth,  created prosperity previous generations could only have dreamt of.  It has allowed us to build  an economy where we manufacture less and less and import more and more.  We export  butter and we import butter.  We remove our native orchards and buy apples from the  cheapest seller wherever that may be around the world.  We have created a façade of wealth  while at the same time wantonly discarding the very things that at any other time in history  constituted real wealth - well managed diverse woodlands, local, vibrant, diverse food  markets, local skills and traditions, local genetic diversity, breeds and varieties uniquely suited  to local climate and soils.      However, while oil has brought undeniable benefits, these have come with a price tag.  The  dangers posed to us all by global warming are known to all at this stage, but suffice to say we  have altered the climate in ways that are already causing chaos around the world, and it is  only just the beginning.  We live in a world where oil has allowed us to create a huge range of  chemical compounds never seen in the world before, many of which have been linked to  problems in human health and environmental pollution.  It is estimated that we all carry about  400-500 chemicals in our bodies that did not exist sixty years ago.  It has also allowed us to  create a lifestyle where we live faster - we drive to shop, drive to work, drive to be  entertained.  We are more stressed and unsatisfied, we sit down to meals with our families  less and less, we have less and less time to relax with friends, there is a growing sense that  “something is missing”.     


The Peak 


As Dr. Colin Campbell’s article below sets out, we are reaching a pivotal point in human  history.  At that moment, global oil production will peak, and from then on, demand will  always exceed supply.  There will never again be as much oil available as there is now.  In  short, we will reach (or have already reached) the point at which growth will become  impossible.  Our economies will need to make the transition to continual contraction rather  than relentless growth.  There will still be oil in the ground, but its extraction will become  unfeasibly expensive and impractical, and our economies, designed on the fundamental  assumption that they will always be growing, will have a traumatic period of adjustment to the  new reality. The co-founder of permaculture, David Holmgren, likens our situation to being on  the top of a mountain, from where we have views that no-one has ever seen before, but  where the storm clouds are gathering.  We have to navigate a way down the mountain while  we still can, while we still have favourable weather and daylight.  If we just allow the peak to  happen, without planning for it, we will be in for a very rough ride.     


Energy Descent – a planned way down 


There is an old saying, “there are three kinds of people; one who watches things happen, one  who makes things happen and one who says 'what happened ?'.  We do have an alternative to  just sitting back and allowing a deeply uncertain future to simply unfold.  Our collective  dependence on fossil fuels leaves us very vulnerable, and indeed is largely responsible for the  instability we see in the world today.  To quote Jan Lundberg of the Sustainable Energy  Institute, “real peace in a petroleum-fuelled world means rejecting petroleum dependence in  all ways possible”.      As a country on the Western seaboard of Europe, far from centres of distribution or oil  production, we find ourselves at the end of a very long supply line.  Ireland imports over 90%  of its food and almost the same proportion of our energy.  Much of our building materials are  imported, likewise our medicines and many other essential goods.  Despite our great material  prosperity and our ‘booming’ economy, we are very vulnerable to fluctuations in supply or  international events.  Given that we can see the unfolding picture as regards peak oil, it  beholds us to act and to do something about it, but what?  The late renowned ecologist  Howard Odum coined the term ‘energy descent’ for the transition from a high fossil fuel use  economy to a more frugal one, also coining the term ‘a prosperous way down’ to show that, if  planned, this could be an opportunity for great inventiveness and abundance.  This report is, as far as we know, the first time an Energy Descent Action Plan has been prepared for a  settlement anywhere in the world.  It is the first time a community has looked realistically at  how it might manage this transitionary period to the benefit of all in a timetabled step-by-step  way.   


In his indispensable book on the subject, ‘The Party’s Over – oil, war and the fate of industrial  societies’, Richard Heinberg invites the reader to take a trip to a city centre and observe how  energy is being used.  How does energy underpin the work people do, where goods come  from, transportation, heating and so on?  He then suggests imagining the same scene with  10% less energy, then 25% less, then 50%, then 75%.  Once we peak, we can expect an  annual decline of available energy of around 2% each year.  This exercise is worth taking the  time to do.  The results are quite sobering, and it is what second year students at Kinsale  Further Education College have been doing over the last year.  It can lead to your asking some  very uncomfortable questions and coming up with some very surprising answers.     


Kinsale 2021 


Students on the Practical Sustainability course at Kinsale FEC  have spent the last year looking at what the realities of  energy descent could mean for Kinsale, and what could be  done about it.  They have consulted with many of the leading  thinkers in the field, and have researched the issue deeply.   In February 2005 they held a one-day event entitled “Kinsale  in 2021 - Towards a Prosperous, Sustainable Future  Together”.  To this event they invited many influential people  in Kinsale, and began by showing them the recent awardwinning film ‘The End of Suburbia’.  The rest of the event  was designed as a community think-tank, to enable the  community to discuss issues raised by the film and  brainstorm ideas about what could be done in the town to  address them.  The event was a great success, and gave the  students many ideas and a feel for the community’s hopes  and fears.  As a follow up to this, a conference is being  planned for June 2005, called ‘Fuelling the Future – the  challenge and opportunity of Peak Oil’, which will be  addressed by many of the world’s experts on the subject and  on creative ways of adapting to it.  We feel that these,  together with this report, constitute very firm first steps  towards a more holistic way of approaching Kinsale’s future.    Ideas from the community  being recorded and displayed  during the Kinsale 2021 event   


This Report 


The report you now hold in your hands is the result of the students’ endeavours over the last  year.  It is a bold and visionary piece of work.  It offers a timetable by which Kinsale can begin  putting in place the elements it will need in order to navigate the troubled waters ahead.  It is  a roadmap to sustainability, to localisation, to abundance.  Some of the ideas it contains may  have occurred to you before, many of them may never have.  Put together they offer a way  forward, with Kinsale leading the way for the rest of the country, setting an example as the  first town that didn’t stick its head in the sand, didn’t hope the problem would simply go away  if ignored.  Kinsale could gain great advantage by being the first town off the blocks, the first  town to begin this process.  However, ideas are nothing if they just remain words on paper.   To quote Joel Barker, “vision without action is merely a dream, action without vision just  passes the time, vision with action can change the world”.  We offer this vision as the first  step towards the action that will we hope will follow. 


It is for this reason that the appendices of this report include an article exploring the concept  for the Kinsale Sustainability Centre.  This sets out how a Sustainability Centre could be  established and what its functions might be.  The Centre would have the broad remit of  implementing this plan in the town, initiating many of the projects and initiatives set out here.  We include it here in the hope that its inclusion might contribute to its realisation.  We offer  this report as a first step on a long, exhilarating and fascinating journey.    


Rob Hopkins is course co-ordinator of the Practical Sustainability course at Kinsale FEC.  He is a founding  Director of The Hollies Centre for Practical Sustainability and has taught permaculture and natural building  widely around Ireland.  To find out more visit www.theholliesonline.com.   




p.8, 9 y 10 not copied (on peak oil)

please do add them those who have energy for this work!



The Scenario of This Report  

Rob Hopkins   


This report takes the scenario painted by Dr Colin Campbell in his  article as its opening premise.  If he is right (and many believe  his predictions to be by far the most reliable currently available),  by 2021 Kinsale will have only about one half of the fossil fuel  available to it that it currently has.  This has implications for  every aspect of life in Kinsale.     


The headings below hopefully cover most aspects of life in Kinsale.  Each section  follows the same format.  It begins with a brief look at the current situation in  Kinsale with regards to the subject in question.  This attempts to summarise the  issues involved in a way which is both succinct and relevant.  This is then followed by  the Vision.  This is our idea of how Kinsale could be in 2021, if the steps suggested  have been taken.  This aims to give you an idea of the potential result of the  recommendations, and how it could actually be a step forward from where we are  now rather than a retreat.     


Then come the actual recommendations.  These are laid out in chronological order,  from the present day until 2021.  The proposals are practical and realistic, and where  their implementation involves the input of a particular body this is included.  The  proposals are laid out in a clear and easy-to-read format so that they are easy to  follow.  Each area is then concluded by a section of resources, places you can find  out more about some of the ideas that have been discussed.  These include books,  websites, organisations and so on.  Please do follow up any areas that interest you,  you never know where they might lead!   


This report is not intended to be comprehensive, please view it is a first draft being  put out into the community for consultation.  It is not the work of professionals.  It  may occasionally be guilty of naivety, being misinformed or overly optimistic, but it  is our attempt at starting this process rolling.  You can look upon it as being the first  step in a long process, offered to you warts’n’all for discussion, rather than a  comprehensive document.  It will be used as the basis for next year’s students to  revise and add their own updates to, based on further and deeper community  consultation.  If you have any thoughts or views on what you have read, you can  either write to the college, or post your thoughts on our website,  www.fuellingthefuture.org.  There you will find a bulletin board where you can  post your views, and these will be taken into consideration when we revise it next  year.  We hope that you will enjoy this document and that it may lead to the change  to which it aspires.     


Further Peak Oil Reading 


Darley, Julian  High Noon for Natural Gas   Post -Carbon Institute  Douthwaite, Richard (ed.)  Before the Wells Run Dry- Ireland's transition to Renewable Energy   Ed. Feasta 2003  Hartmann, Thom  The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight  Three Rivers Press (US) 2004  Joplin, John and Douthwaite, Richard (eds.) The Feasta Review   Green Books/FEASTA  2001     Kunstler, James Howard   The Long Emergency- Surviving the Converging Catastrophes of the  21 st Century  Atlantic Monthly Press 2005  Mason, Colin  The 2030 Spike: Countdown to Global Catastrophe  Earthscan   2003  McKillop Andrew (ed) The Final Energy Crises  Pluto Press 2005  Savinar, Matt, J.D.  The Oil Age is Over- What to Expect when the World Runs out of Cheap Oil  2005-2050 Morris Publishing 2004 


Further What-We-Can-Do-About-It Reading... 


Hargroves, Karlson & Smith, Michael.  The Natural Advantage of Nations – business  opportunities, innovations and governance in the 21 st Century.  Earthscan 2005  Holmgren, David.  Permaculture – principles and pathways beyond sustainability.  Holmgren  Design Press 2003  James, Sarah & Lahti, Torbjorn.  The Natural Step for Communities – how cities and towns can  change to sustainable practices.  New Society Publishers 2004  Whitefield, Patrick.  The Earth Care Manual – a permaculture handbook for temperate climates  Permanent Publications. 2004 




Deirdre Barry, Rob Hopkins     


The Present 

Kinsale is known widely as the Gourmet Capital of Ireland.  While it does indeed  host many fine restaurants, it is as dependent on imported food as anywhere else  in the country.  Over 90% of the food consumed within Kinsale comes from  outside the area, and this percentage is rapidly increasing as imports become  cheaper.  Farmers are being paid to let their land do nothing, whereas it could be  growing food for local markets.  In the near future, when the reality of Peak Oil  makes itself increasingly apparent, we will discover that food security is not only  a Third World issue.  As the recent fuel crisis in the UK showed, supermarkets  only contain 3 days worth of food at any given time, as the old saying goes  ‘civilisation is only 3 meals deep’.  Much of what we consume has travelled great  distances, is saturated with pesticides and other chemicals, and is grown in ways  that deplete rather than build soils.  Even if we choose organic, there is a very  high chance, if we shop in Kinsale, that the organic food we are buying has been  grown overseas, with the resultant environmental impacts of transporting it over  long distances to reach us.  Food is one of the basic cornerstones of life, as oil  prices steadily increase, we will discover how dependent we have become on a  totally undependable system.    


The Vision 

By 2021, Kinsale has made the transition from dependency to self reliance.  Food  growing has become an integral part of life in the town.  Lawns are a thing of the  past, lawnmowers now hang in pubs as old ploughs did in 2005, relics of a bizarre  form of land use that people used to practice in the dying days of the Oil Age.  All  landscaping in the town comprises of edible plants, fruit trees line the streets, all  parks and greens have become food forests and community gardens, and every  back garden contains a food garden.  The resurgence in food production had  great benefits for the community.  People rediscovered old varieties, and began  once more to save and exchange seeds.  As peoples’ diets improved with more  and more fresh vegetables, and people enjoyed the exercise of making a garden,  so health increased and common illnesses decreased.  People are now more  aware of the seasons, and a vibrant local economy in local honey, vegetables,  fresh fish and poultry and fruit has now replaced the monoculture of the  supermarket so popular in 2005.     


Practical Steps:   



    •  The Kinsale Sustainability Centre appoints a Local Food Officer, with the  brief of promoting local food.  His/her first job is to organise an Open  Space Think Tank event, inviting all those involved in food in Kinsale to  discuss the recommendations in this report and to add new ones 

    •  A Local Food Partnership is formed as a follow up to this meeting.  Made  up of interested parties and representatives of the various sectors in  Kinsale with an interest in food, the Partnership serves a few roles. Firstly  it is useful for ongoing discussion about food issues, secondly it facilitates  the design of local food networks, and thirdly it gives profile to this work.    



    •  The Local Food Officer, together with the Local Food Partnership, produces  a Local Food Action Plan for Kinsale, which sets out practical steps towards  local food in Kinsale.  A summary of this report is produced, together with  a Directory of Local Food, listing all the local producers and growers in the  Kinsale area.   

    •  The Local Food Officer works with the local schools to change their  procurement policies as regards food.  Schools undertake to purchase  60% of their food from local producers, of which 40% is organic.  

    •  The Local Food Partnership forms a Steering Group to begin to move  Kinsale towards being a Slow Food town.  They arrange a trip to existing  Slow Food towns elsewhere in Europe to get a feel for their experience.   

    •  Kinsale FEC adds a module to the Practical Sustainability course in Organic  Market Gardening, so as to give people the commercial as well as the  practical skills needed for making a living growing food within Kinsale.   

    •  Identify a number of sites for orchards around Kinsale, and plant them  with local school children, using rare West Cork varieties where available.     



    •  The Slow Food Steering Group formally applies to make Kinsale a Slow  Food Town. This change means that the focus for Kinsale’s restaurants  stays on good quality food, but shifts subtly to add an emphasis on local,  organic and high quality food.  It also puts an emphasis on local recipes  and delicacies, and helps reconnect people to their food heritage.  The  Slow Food group introduce a Kinsale Slow Food label, which restaurants  which meet the criteria can be awarded.  The scheme is launched with a  Slow Food banquet in Kinsale Town Hall.  

    •  The energy behind Kinsale’s becoming a Slow Food Town leads to the  obstacles to a Kinsale Farmers’ Market being overcome.  The Farmers  Market is held every Friday, and brings local food to the community, and is  a celebration of local food culture.  As has been the experience of many  other places, the Farmers Market creates many niches for small growers  and is a real social focus for the town.  

    •  Kinsale Town Council introduces reduced rates for businesses using more  than a stated percentage of locally produced food.   

    •  Kinsale Hospital introduces a Local Food Procurement policy, sourcing as  much of its food locally as possible.  

    •  Kinsale Town Council brings in new guidelines for its grounds maintenance  staff.  They are all required to undertake a permaculture design course.   Wherever new trees are to be planted, they must be productive tree  species.  Especially recommended are nut trees such as walnut and sweet  chestnut, as well as the wide range of fruiting trees.  New guidelines are  also introduced for developers, all new planning applications must be  accompanied by a full edible landscaping plan.  The new guidelines create  employment opportunities for students from the Practical Sustainability  course at Kinsale FEC, who are uniquely qualified to do this work, a  number of whom set up design consultancies in order to serve this new  demand.    

    •  Students from Kinsale FEC begin working with local schools to design and  install food gardens in each school.    



    •  Kinsale becomes recognised as Ireland’s first Slow Food Town.  A Slow  Food Festival is held to celebrate.  The high profile of being the first Slow  Food town allows the Town Council to source funding to initiate a number  of urban food growing projects.  These include; 

    •  A community food garden in the garden in front of the town hall 

    •  A 1601 Fruit Trees for Kinsale initiative, which makes free fruit trees  available to residents of Kinsale, as well as an aftercare advice  service for people in how to take care of them.   

    •  A proposal for the current Supervalu car park site to transform it into  a mini-Eden Project, a glass dome incorporating a ‘Living Machine’  waste water treatment system, a café, a subtropical fruit arboretum,  and food growing.  This structure would become a major attraction,  and would be a ground breaking example of a tourist attraction  designed to bring great benefit to a town beyond simply attracting  tourists.   

    •  An ‘EasyGarden’ scheme, where salad and vegetable plants are  propagated in trays at a central point and then passed on to people  to plant directly, saving them the perceived ‘hassle’ of growing their  own plants from seed.  

    •  A programme to seek out any rare apple or other fruit varieties in  Kinsale so that cuttings can be taken and the varieties can be  preserved.   



    •  The Slow Food is label rolled out to include B&Bs.  By meeting certain  criteria they are allowed to call themselves a Slow Bed and Breakfast (or  Bed and Slow Breakfast... (!)).  Criteria are established for how they would  qualify.  One is that they provide local breakfasts, with all the components  of the breakfast being sourced locally.  Switching all of Kinsale’s B&Bs over  to the Slow Food label would create a considerable market for local  produce.   



    •  By 2010, the various changes in procurement from schools, the hospital  and B&Bs and also the now well-established Farmers Market have begun  to create significant market opportunities in Kinsale for people to produce  local food.  Polytunnels start popping up on open ground around Kinsale,  and the sound of chickens is once again heard in the town.  West Cork  LEADER make grants available to people starting up small scale food  production, and also offer business support. 

    •  As part of the Slow Food process, and in the interest of promoting Kinsale  as a Sustainable Town, Kinsale Town Council bans the use of herbicides  along road sides in the town.              



    •  Groups of farmers with land around Kinsale get together and form an  organic local food co-op.  With the help of Teagasc, they convert their land  to organic, and work together to grow food specifically for the local  market.  They focus on bulkier crops such as potatoes, carrots and  parsnips, to complement the salads and more easily transported crops  being grown nearer to or in the town.   

    •  The farmers co-op also turns its dairy herds organic, and begin to value  add the milk they produce by making cheese and butter on the farm for  local markets.  The co-op also, with all its member farmers, takes a fresh  look at all of its practices in the light of Peak Oil.  This leads to lower  stocking densities, and a widespread adoption of the practice of Foggage  Farming, as developed at Fordhall Farm in the UK (see Resources).  In this  system all livestock are 100% Free Range and graze the species-rich  chemical free pastures all year round (there would be a certain conversion  period to reseed pastures and to build up the required root mat in the  sward). No routine antibiotics or growth hormones are used. Stock is not  housed through the winter, so there is no need for any additional  concentrates. Hardier cattle varieties are used.    

    •  The Farmers Co-op and the local growers get together to design a  Community Supported Agriculture Scheme, whereby customers can order  food directly from local sources.  A box of mixed produce is delivered on a  weekly basis to homes in the town.  This also allows the customer to make  a direct link with the growers, so they know where their food comes from.    



    •  A ‘Tasty Towns’ competition is introduced as a national challenge to towns  to see which town can grow the most food in the most imaginative way  within its town boundaries.  Other criteria looked for are the most  imaginative ways of incorporating the widest cross section of society in  food growing and the revival of old varieties and traditional techniques.  It  is co-ordinated and run in a similar way to the Tidy Towns competition,  but does a great deal to promote local food growing in Ireland.  Its central  office is based in the Sustainability Centre in Kinsale. 

    •  Training is offered to the Kinsale community on innovative niche markets  for food production.  These include organic mushrooms such as shiitake,  unusual vegetables, and innovative ways of growing grains.  These workshops are hosted at Kinsale FEC and funded by Bord Bia and West  Cork LEADER.             



    •  A laboratory is set up producing spores for gourmet and medicinal  mushrooms, modelled on the Humungous Fungus company in the UK (see  Resources below). They sell spawn and also set up a series of growers  around the region growing mushrooms on.  These mushrooms have  amazing health benefits, indeed the majority of medicines in China and  Japan are made from mushrooms.   

    •  In order to make it easier for individuals to grow their own food, the  ‘EasyGarden’ scheme links with the Community Composting Scheme, and  offers a whole package, teaching people how to very easily make no-dig  gardens as well as providing them with the plants to fill the beds.    

    •  Apple Day begins to be celebrated as an annual festival in Kinsale,  celebrating Kinsale varities and reconnecting people with the history of the  apple in Kinsale.    



    •  In the interests of energy efficiency and also of promoting local food  growing, grants are made available for people to put lean-to  conservatories on their houses, provided they meet certain design criteria,  for example they are not to be heated, they are to the thermally isolated  from the rest of the house, and they should be on the south side of the  house.  Help is then given with designing food growing inside and  identifying suitable species.   



•  A ‘MatchMaking Service’ is set up to get around land access issues in  Kinsale.  A number of younger more physically able people live in flats and  in houses with no gardens, while many older people live in houses with  gardens they are no longer capable of looking after.  Many of these older  people would love to see their gardens being used in a productive way,  perhaps in exchange for a ‘vegetable tax’, a small proportion of the  produce.  The Matchmaking Service would co-ordinate this, make  introductions between people and working as an intermediary in the case  of any problems arising.       2016  •  An aquaculture system is designed for the town.  Being a natural bowl,  Kinsale is in many ways ideal for an urban sustainable aquaculture  system.  Water is channelled into a series of ponds which are used to raise  freshwater fish, such as trout.  This is carefully designed so as to also  allow for other uses such as recreation and the production of other crops  such as watercress and water chestnuts.    •  The orchards planted in 2007 begin to come into regular production.  A  press is set up in the town to facilitate the production of apple juice, cider  and cider vinegar.    2016 – 2021  •  Assisted by the various organisations now in place and the highly visible  benefits of local food growing, the move towards a culture of local food  growing is well under way.  Kinsale is well ahead of the rest of the country  in not only having put in place the infrastructure of a local food economy,  but also holding a number of events to celebrate it.  The ecological  aquaculture system is put in place, bringing the sound of running water to  the streets of Kinsale as well as high quality fresh fish.  The glasshouse  project for the Supervalu car park site in Kinsale is granted planning  permission and also funding, and work begins on its construction.  Kinsale  now has an in-built resilience to enable it to deal robustly with shocks and  shortages in the food supply system.   

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